Rhizospheric Cymbopogon citratus-Staphylococcus succinus Interactions for Phytoremediation of Dibenzofuran Contaminated Soil
Nurul Elyni Mat Shaari1, Md. Tajol Faeiz Md. Tajudin1, Zarina Zainudin1, Noor Faizul Hadry Nordin*
1Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
*Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*International Institute For Halal Research And Training (Inhart), International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author for correspondence: Noor Faizul Hadry Nordin
International Institute For Halal Research And Training (Inhart), International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Chloroaromatic compounds such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds is categorized as a highly persistent chemical and accumulates in the environment as well as increasing their distribution in our ecosystem. Phytoremediation is one of the tolerable ways that has been operated to battle out the problem of contaminants. This study investigated the lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) traits and soil enzyme activities upon dibenzofuran (DBF) pollution and inoculation of Staphylococcus succinus in soil. Lemongrass was planted into uncontaminated soil and DBF-contaminated soil. Four treatments were conducted; soil, soil with plant, soil with bacteria, and soil with plant and bacteria. After 30 days exposure, the plant traits such as plant length, biomass, chlorophyll content and soil enzymes activities were examined to investigate the sensitivity of lemongrass towards DBF. The presence of DBF in soil, plant length and aboveground and belowground mass were decreased compared to control. However, with inoculation of Staphylococcus succinus in soil, these plant traits were significantly higher than control, suppressing the effects of DBF. The chlorophyll content of lemongrass indicated slightly difference showing a less or no effect of DBF. Nevertheless, enzyme activities of asparaginase and protease exhibited higher activity than uncontaminated soil. DBF reduction can be seen by GC-MS analysis where symbiosis of lemongrass and bacteria showed the highest reduction percentage.